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Author Demchak, J.; Morrow, T.; Skousen, J.; Donovan, J.J.; Rose, A.W.
Title Treatment of acid mine drainage by four vertical flow wetlands in Pennsylvania Evolution and remediation of acid-sulfate groundwater systems at reclaimed mine-sites Type Journal Article
Year 2001 Publication Geochemistry – Exploration, Environment, Analysis Abbreviated Journal
Volume 1 Issue 1 Pages (down) 71-80
Keywords acid mine drainage alkalinity anaerobic environment Appalachian Plateau Appalachians carbonate rocks Clearfield County Pennsylvania constructed wetlands Eh equilibrium Filson Wetlands ground water Howe Bridge Wetlands hydrology Jefferson County Pennsylvania limestone McKinley Wetlands Mill Creek watershed Moose Creek movement North America passive methods Pennsylvania pH pollution reclamation sedimentary rocks Sommerville Wetlands systems United States water treatment watersheds wetlands 22 Environmental geology 02B Hydrochemistry
Abstract Acid mine drainage (AMD) is a serious problem in many watersheds where coal is mined. Passive treatments, such as wetlands and anoxic limestone drains (ALDs), have been developed, but these technologies show varying treatment efficiencies. A new passive treatment technique is a vertical flow wetland or successive alkalinity producing system (SAPS). Four SAPS in Pennsylvania were studied to determine changes in water chemistry from inflow to outflow. The Howe Bridge SAPS removed about 130 mg l (super -1) (40%) of the inflow acidity concentration and about 100 mg l (super -1) (60%) iron (Fe). The Filson 1 SAPS removed 68 mg l (super -1) (26%) acidity, 20 mg l (super -1) (83%) Fe and 6 mg l (super -1) (35%) aluminium (Al). The Sommerville SAPS removed 112 mg l (super -1) (31%) acidity, exported Fe, and removed 13 mg l (super -1) (30%) Al. The McKinley SAPS removed 54 mg l (super -1) (91%) acidity and 5 mg l (super -1) (90%) Fe. Acid removal rates at our four sites were 17 (HB), 52 (Filson1), 18 (Sommerville) and 11 (McKinley) g of acid per m (super 2) of surface wetland area per day (g/m (super 2) d (super -1) ). Calcium (Ca) concentrations in the SAPS effluents were increased between 8 and 57 mg l (super -1) at these sites. Equilibrators, which were inserted into compost layers to evaluate redox conditions at our sites, showed that reducing conditions were generally found at 60 cm compost depths and oxidized conditions were found at 30 cm compost depths. Deeply oxidized zones substantiated observations that channel flow was occurring through some parts of the compost. The Howe Bridge site has not declined in treatment efficiency over a six year treatment life. The SAPS construction costs were equal to about seven years of NaOH chemical treatment costs and 30 years of lime treatment costs. So, if the SAPS treatment longevity is seven years or greater and comparable effluent water quality was achieved, the SAPS construction was cost effective compared to NaOH chemical treatment. Construction recommendations for SAPS include a minimum of 50 cm of compost thickness, periodic replacement or addition of fresh compost material, and increasing the number of drainage pipes underlying the limestone.
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Notes Treatment of acid mine drainage by four vertical flow wetlands in Pennsylvania Evolution and remediation of acid-sulfate groundwater systems at reclaimed mine-sites; 2002-008380; References: 15; illus. incl. 5 tables United Kingdom (GBR); GeoRef; English Approved no
Call Number CBU @ c.wolke @ 16518 Serial 58
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