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Author (up) Demchak, J.; Morrow, T.; Skousen, J.; Donovan, J.J.; Rose, A.W.
Title Treatment of acid mine drainage by four vertical flow wetlands in Pennsylvania Evolution and remediation of acid-sulfate groundwater systems at reclaimed mine-sites Type Journal Article
Year 2001 Publication Geochemistry – Exploration, Environment, Analysis Abbreviated Journal
Volume 1 Issue 1 Pages 71-80
Keywords acid mine drainage alkalinity anaerobic environment Appalachian Plateau Appalachians carbonate rocks Clearfield County Pennsylvania constructed wetlands Eh equilibrium Filson Wetlands ground water Howe Bridge Wetlands hydrology Jefferson County Pennsylvania limestone McKinley Wetlands Mill Creek watershed Moose Creek movement North America passive methods Pennsylvania pH pollution reclamation sedimentary rocks Sommerville Wetlands systems United States water treatment watersheds wetlands 22 Environmental geology 02B Hydrochemistry
Abstract Acid mine drainage (AMD) is a serious problem in many watersheds where coal is mined. Passive treatments, such as wetlands and anoxic limestone drains (ALDs), have been developed, but these technologies show varying treatment efficiencies. A new passive treatment technique is a vertical flow wetland or successive alkalinity producing system (SAPS). Four SAPS in Pennsylvania were studied to determine changes in water chemistry from inflow to outflow. The Howe Bridge SAPS removed about 130 mg l (super -1) (40%) of the inflow acidity concentration and about 100 mg l (super -1) (60%) iron (Fe). The Filson 1 SAPS removed 68 mg l (super -1) (26%) acidity, 20 mg l (super -1) (83%) Fe and 6 mg l (super -1) (35%) aluminium (Al). The Sommerville SAPS removed 112 mg l (super -1) (31%) acidity, exported Fe, and removed 13 mg l (super -1) (30%) Al. The McKinley SAPS removed 54 mg l (super -1) (91%) acidity and 5 mg l (super -1) (90%) Fe. Acid removal rates at our four sites were 17 (HB), 52 (Filson1), 18 (Sommerville) and 11 (McKinley) g of acid per m (super 2) of surface wetland area per day (g/m (super 2) d (super -1) ). Calcium (Ca) concentrations in the SAPS effluents were increased between 8 and 57 mg l (super -1) at these sites. Equilibrators, which were inserted into compost layers to evaluate redox conditions at our sites, showed that reducing conditions were generally found at 60 cm compost depths and oxidized conditions were found at 30 cm compost depths. Deeply oxidized zones substantiated observations that channel flow was occurring through some parts of the compost. The Howe Bridge site has not declined in treatment efficiency over a six year treatment life. The SAPS construction costs were equal to about seven years of NaOH chemical treatment costs and 30 years of lime treatment costs. So, if the SAPS treatment longevity is seven years or greater and comparable effluent water quality was achieved, the SAPS construction was cost effective compared to NaOH chemical treatment. Construction recommendations for SAPS include a minimum of 50 cm of compost thickness, periodic replacement or addition of fresh compost material, and increasing the number of drainage pipes underlying the limestone.
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ISSN 1467-7873 ISBN Medium
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Notes Treatment of acid mine drainage by four vertical flow wetlands in Pennsylvania Evolution and remediation of acid-sulfate groundwater systems at reclaimed mine-sites; 2002-008380; References: 15; illus. incl. 5 tables United Kingdom (GBR); GeoRef; English Approved no
Call Number CBU @ c.wolke @ 16518 Serial 58
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Author (up) Evangelou, V.P.
Title Pyrite microencapsulation technologies: Principles and potential field application Type Journal Article
Year 2001 Publication Ecological Engineering Abbreviated Journal
Volume 17 Issue 2-3 Pages 165-178
Keywords mine water treatment Acid mine drainage Acidity Alkalinity Amelioration Coating Oxidation Surface reactions
Abstract In nature, pyrite is initially oxidized by atmospheric O2, releasing acidity and Fe2+. At pH below 3.5, Fe2+ is rapidly oxidized by T. ferrooxidans to Fe3+, which oxidizes pyrite at a much faster rate than O2. Commonly, limestone is used to prevent pyrite oxidation. This approach, however, has a short span of effectiveness because after treatment the surfaces of pyrite particles remain exposed to atmospheric O2 and oxidation continuous abiotically. Currently, a proposed mechanism for explaining non-microbial pyrite oxidation in high pH environments is the involvement of OH- in an inner-sphere electron-OH exchange between pyrite/surface-exposed disulfide and pyrite/surface-Fe(III)(OH)n3-n complex and/or formation of a weak electrostatic pyrite/surface-CO3 complex which enhances the chemical oxidation of Fe2+. The above infer that limestone application to pyritic geologic material treats only the symptoms of pyrite oxidation through acid mine drainage neutralization but accelerates non-microbial pyrite oxidation. Therefore, only a pyrite/surface coating capable of inhibiting O2 diffusion is expected to control long-term oxidation and acid drainage production. The objective of this study was to examine the feasibility in controlling pyrite oxidation by creating, on pyrite surfaces, an impermeable phosphate or silica coating that would prevent either O2 or Fe3+ from further oxidizing pyrite. The mechanism underlying this coating approach involves leaching mine waste with a coating solution composed of H2O2 or hypochlorite, KH2PO4 or H4SiO4, and sodium acetate (NaAC) or limestone. During the leaching process, H2O2 or hypochlorite oxidizes pyrite and produces Fe3+ so that iron phosphate or iron silicate precipitates as a coating on pyrite surfaces. The purpose of NaAC or limestone is to eliminate the inhibitory effect of the protons (produced during pyrite oxidation) on the precipitation of iron phosphate or silicate and to generate iron-oxide pyrite coating, which is also expected to inhibit pyrite oxidation. The results showed that iron phosphate or silicate coating could be established on pyrite by leaching it with a solution composed of: (1) H2O2 0.018-0.16 M; (2) phosphate or silicate 10-3 to 10-2 M; (3) coating-solution pH [approximate]5-6; and (4) NaAC as low as 0.01 M. Leachates from column experiments also showed that silicate coatings produced the least amount of sulfate relative to the control, limestone and phosphate treatments. On the other hand, limestone maintained the leachate near neutral pH but produced more sulfate than the control.
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ISSN 0925-8574 ISBN Medium
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Notes July 01; Pyrite microencapsulation technologies: Principles and potential field application; file:///C:/Dokumente%20und%20Einstellungen/Stefan/Eigene%20Dateien/Artikel/10063.pdf; Science Direct Approved no
Call Number CBU @ c.wolke @ 10063 Serial 37
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Author (up) Faulkner, B.B.; Skousen, J.G.; Skousen, J.G.; Ziemkiewicz, P.F.
Title Treatment of acid mine drainage by passive treatment systems Type Book Chapter
Year 1996 Publication Acid mine drainage control and treatment Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords acid mine drainage; acidification; alkalinity; carbonate rocks; chemical reactions; constructed wetlands; controls; depositional environment; ground water; heavy metals; limestone; microorganisms; pollution; sedimentary rocks; substrates; surface water; techniques; United States; water pollution; water treatment; West Virginia; wetlands 22, Environmental geology
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Publisher West Virginia University and the National Mine Land Reclamation Center Place of Publication Morgantown Editor
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Notes Treatment of acid mine drainage by passive treatment systems; GeoRef; English; 2004-051153; Edition: 2 References: 13; illus. incl. 4 tables Approved no
Call Number CBU @ c.wolke @ 6363 Serial 384
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Author (up) Gusek, J.J.; Wildeman, T.R.
Title New developments in passive treatment of acid rock drainage Pollution prevention for process engineering Type Book Chapter
Year 1995 Publication Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords acid mine drainage; aerobic environment; alkalinity; bioaccumulation; bioremediation; constructed wetlands; decontamination; disposal barriers; geomembranes; heavy metals; hydroxides; nutrients; oxides; pH; physical properties; pollution; reclamation; remediation; soils; tailings; techniques; toxic materials; vegetation; waste disposal; water quality; wetlands 22, Environmental geology
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Publisher Engineering Foundation Place of Publication New York Editor Richardson, P.E.; Scheiner, B.J.; Lanzetta, F., Jr.
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ISSN ISBN 0939204533 Medium
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Notes New developments in passive treatment of acid rock drainage Pollution prevention for process engineering; GeoRef; English; 2000-063657; Engineering Foundation conference on Technical solution for pollution prevention in the mining and mineral processing industries, Palm Coast, FL, United States, Jan. 22-27, 1995 References: 3; illus. incl. 1 table Approved no
Call Number CBU @ c.wolke @ 6447 Serial 363
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Author (up) Jage, C.R.; Zipper, C.E.
Title Acid-mine drainage treatment using successive alkalinity-producing systems Type RPT
Year 2000 Publication Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords acid mine drainage; alkalinity; Appalachians; carbonate rocks; decontamination; dissolved materials; dissolved oxygen; limestone; North America; oxygen; pH; pollution; reclamation; sedimentary rocks; United States; Virginia; waste management; water treatment 22, Environmental geology
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Series Editor Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, P.R.P.B.V.A.U.S. Series Title Powell River Project research and education program reports Abbreviated Series Title
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Notes Acid-mine drainage treatment using successive alkalinity-producing systems; 2002-029549; GeoRef; English; References: 12; illus. incl. 2 tables U. S. Geological Survey, Library, Reston, VA, United States Approved no
Call Number CBU @ c.wolke @ 5882 Serial 343
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