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Laine, D. M., & Jarvis, A. P. (2003). Engineering design aspects of passive in situ remediation of mining effluents. Land Contam. Reclam., 11(2), 113–126.
Abstract: Passive treatment of contaminated effluents can offer a 'low cost' management opportunity to remediate drainages to the standards required by enforcement agencies. However, the initial cost of construction of passive treatment systems is significant and often in excess of that for active treatment systems. It is therefore important that the engineering design of the passive systems produces an effective and efficient scheme to enable the construction and maintenance costs to be minimised as far as possible. Possible parameters for the design of passive systems are suggested to seek to obtain uniformity in size and layout of treatment elements where this may be possible. Passive treatment systems include aeration systems, sedimentation ponds, aerobic and anaerobic wetlands, anoxic limestone drains and reducing alkalinity producing systems. Most active treatment systems also include passive elements in the treatment stream. The basic design considerations that should be considered to ensure the construction of efficient systems are discussed.