||Passive methods of treating mine water utilize chemical and biological processes that decrease metal concentrations and neutralize acidity. Compared to conventional chemical treatment, passive methods generally require more land area, but utilize less costly reagents and require less operational attention and maintenance. Currently, three types of passive technologies exist: aerobic wetlands, wetlands that contain an organic substrate, and anoxic limestone drains. Aerobic wetlands promote mixed oxidation and hydrolysis reactions, and are most effective when the raw mine water is net alkaline. Organic substrate wetlands promote anaerobic bacterial activity that results in the precipitation of metal sulfides and the generation of bicarbonate alkalinity. Anoxic limestone drains generate bicarbonate alkalinity and can be useful for the pretreatment of mine water before it flows into a wetland. Rates of metal and acidity removal for passive systems have been developed empirically. Aerobic wetlands remove Fe and Mn from alkaline water at rates of 10-20 g×m-2×d-1 and 0.5-1.0 g×m-2×d-1, respectively.