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Author Cram, J.C. openurl 
  Title Diversion well treatment of acid water, Lick Creek, Tioga County, PA Type Book Whole
  Year 1996 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords acid mine drainage acid rain atmospheric precipitation carbonate rocks diversion wells Lick Creek limestone Pennsylvania pH pollution rain sedimentary rocks surface water Tioga County Pennsylvania United States water quality water treatment wells 22, Environmental geology  
  Abstract Diversion wells implement a fluidized bed of limestone for the treatment of acid water resulting from acid mine drainage or acid precipitation. This study was undertaken to better understand the operation of diversion wells and to define the physical and chemical factors having the greatest impact on the neutralization performance of the system. The study site was located near Lick Creek, a tributary stream of Babb Creek, near the Village of Arnot in Tioga County, Pennsylvania. Investigative methods included collection and analysis of site water quality and limestone data and field study of this as well as other diversion well sites. Analysis of data led to these general conclusions: The site received surface water influenced by three primary sources 1) precipitation, 2) mine drainage baseflow, and 3) melted snow. Water mostly influenced by precipitation events and mine drainage baseflow was more acidic than water influenced by melting snow conditions. The diversion wells were generally able to treat only half or less of the total stream flow of Lick Creek and under extremely high flow conditions the treatment provided was minimal. A range of flow conditions were identified which produced the best performance for the two diversion wells. Treatment produced by the system decreased through the loading cycle and increases to a maximum value after each weekly refilling of limestone. Fine grained sediment in the stream was found to be limestone of the same general composition as the material placed within the wells. Neutralization of acid water was largely due to microscopic particles rather than the limestone sediment discharged to the stream. Additional downstream buffering due to the limestone sediment physically discharged from the vessels was not apparent. Diversion well systems are inexpensive and simple to construct. In addition, the systems were found to be highly reliable and able to effectively treat acid water resulting from mine drainage and acid precipitation. Diversion wells provide better treatment when the treatment site is located at the source of the acidity (such as a mine discharge), rather than at the receiving stream. Systems should be designed with 15 to 20 feet of hydraulic head and the site must have year-round access. Diversion well systems require weekly addition of limestone gravel to the vessels to facilitate continual treatment. A great deal of commitment is necessary to maintain a diversion well system for long periods of time. These systems are more economical and require less attention that conventional chemical treatment of acid water. However, these systems require more attention that traditional passive treatment methods for treatment of acid, including mine drainage.  
  Corporate Author Thesis Ph.D. thesis  
  Publisher (up) Pennsylvania State University at University Park, Place of Publication University Park Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Diversion well treatment of acid water, Lick Creek, Tioga County, PA; GeoRef; English; References: 49; illus. Approved no  
  Call Number CBU @ c.wolke @ 16652 Serial 411  
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